Saturday, 20 September 2014

Wompoo fruit-dove

Megaloprepia magnifica

(Photo from FollowPics)

Common name:
wompoo fruit-dove (en); pombo-da-fruta-magnífico (pt); ptilope magnifique (fr); tilopo magnífico (es); langschwanz-fruchttaube (de)

Taxonomy:
Order Columbiformes
Family Columbidae

Range:
This species is found throughout New Guina and along the north-eastern coast of Australia from Cape york in northern Queensland to Sidney in New South Wales.

Size:
These birds are 29-45 cm long and weigh 250-500 g.

Habitat:
The wompoo fruit-dove is found in tropical rainforests and adjacent wet sclerophyll forests, as well as in second growths, pastures and farmland with scattered trees. They are present from sea level up to an altitude of 1.400 m.

Diet:
These birds are frugivorous, taking a wide range of forest fruits such as figs, fruits of cinnamon trees and palm fruits. They have been recorded taking the fruits of Arecaceae,
Vitaceae, Araliaceae, Cunoniaceae, Ebenaceae, Elaeocarpaceae, Lauraceae, Meliaceae,Moraceae, Myrtaceae, Oleaceae, Pennantiaceae, Rutaceae and Sapindaceae.

Breeding:
Wompoo fruit-doves can probably breed all year round. The nest is built by both sexes, consisting of a small, sturdy platform made of twigs, placed in a tree 2-10 m above the ground. There the female lays a single white egg which is incubated by both sexes for 18-21 days. The chicks fledge 2-3 weeks after hatching. Each pair raises a single chick per season.

Conservation:
IUCN status - LC (Least Concern)
This species has a large breeding range and is reported to be widespread and common to fairly common. The population is suspected to be in decline and became, locally extinct in the southernmost parts of its range owing to ongoing habitat destruction and fragmentation, and unsustainable levels of exploitation.

Friday, 19 September 2014

Slaty-backed chat-tyrant

Ochthoeca cinnamomeiventris

Photo by Nick Athanas (Antpitta)

Common name:
slaty-backed chat-tyrant (en); pitajo-negro (pt); pitajo noir (fr); pitajo negro (es); schiefermantel-schmätzertyrann (de)

Taxonomy:
Order Passeriformes
Family Tyrannidae

Range:
This species is found along the Andes mountain range, from western Venezuela south to central Bolivia.

Size:
These birds are 12-13 cm long and weigh 12 g.

Habitat:
The slaty-backed chat-tyrant is mostly found in dense vegetation within mountain rainforests, also using forests edges, second growths and areas along rivers and streams. They occur at altitudes of 1.600-3.300 m.

Diet:
They forage alone on in pairs, searching for insects among the foliage.

Breeding:
These birds can breed all year round, varying among different parts of their range. The nest is an open cup made of moss, lined with fern scales. It is placed on a rocky crevice, vertical rock wall or clay bank, usually adjacent or overhanging a stream, 1-5 m above the water. There the female lays 1-2 pale cream or white eggs, either unmarked or with a few cinnamon spots. The eggs are incubated for about 2 weeks and the chicks fledge 18-20 days after hatching.

Conservation:
IUCN status - LC (Least Concern)
This species has a large breeding range and is described as fairly common. The population is suspected to be stable in the absence of evidence for any declines or substantial threats.

Thursday, 18 September 2014

Eyebrowed wren-babbler

Napothera epilepidota

Photo by David Lai (Oriental Bird Images)

Common name:
eyebrowed wren-babbler (en); zaragateiro-pequeno-de-sobrancelha (pt); petite turdinule (fr); ratina cejuda (es); streifenbrusttimalie (de)

Taxonomy:
Order Passeriformes
Family Timaliidae

Range:
This species is found from southern China, Bangladesh and extreme north-eastern India, through Indochina and into the Indonesian islands of Java, Sumatra and Borneo.

Size:
These birds are 10-11 cm long.

Habitat:
The eyebrowed wren-babbler is found in moist tropical forests, including broadleaved evergreen forests, secondary forests, mixed dipterocarp forests and gallery forests.

Diet:
They feed on various arthropods, including ants, grasshoppers, beetles and spiders.

Breeding:
Eyebrowed wren-babblers breed in November-June, varying among different parts of their range. The nest is a dome or cup made of decaying plant material, where the female lays 3-4 eggs. There is no available information regarding the incubation and fledging periods.

Conservation:
IUCN status - LC (Least Concern)
This species has a very large breeding range and is described as generally fairly common across its range, although rare in India and Bhutan. The population is suspected to be in decline owing to ongoing habitat destruction and fragmentation.

Wednesday, 17 September 2014

Great shearwater

Ardenna gravis

Photo by Alejandro Torés (Seabirds Galicia)

Common name:
great shearwater (en); pardela-de-barrete (pt); puffin majeur (fr); pardela capirotada (es); großer sturmtaucher (de)

Taxonomy:
Order Procellariiformes
Family Procellariidae

Range:
This species only breeds on Nightingale Island, Inaccessible Island and Gough island in the Tristan da Cunha archipelago, and on Kidney Island in the Falklands. Outside the breeding season they migrate north to winter along the coasts of North America and Europe, as far north as the Arctic Circle.

Size:
These birds are 43-51 cm long and have a wingspan of 100-118 cm. They weigh 670-995 g.

Habitat:
The great shearwater is a pelagic species, spending most of their life in offshore and pelagic waters. They only come to land to breed, in remote volcanic islands, in areas of sloping ground among tussock grass or Phylica woodlands.

Diet:
They feed in groups, hunting fishes such as mackerel and capelin, squids such as Illex illecebrosus, and crustaceans, either by catching prey from the surface or by plunge-diving. They also take fish offal from fishing boats.

Breeding:
Great shearwaters breed in October-April. They are monogamous and usually nest in dense colonies of up to many thousands of pairs. They excavate a burrow in the ground, where the female lays a single white eggs which is incubated by both parents for 53-57 days. The chick is fed by both parents and fledges 85-120 days after hatching.

Conservation:
IUCN status - LC (Least Concern)
This species has an extremely large range and the global population is estimated to be over 15 million individuals. The population is suspected to be stable in the absence of evidence for any declines or substantial threats. However, several thousand adults and  about 50.000 chicks are harvested every year in Tristan da Cunha and there is no research to validate whether these levels of harvesting are sustainable.

Tuesday, 16 September 2014

Banded broadbill

Eurylaimus javanicus

(Photo from Auk Anak Wayang)

Common name:
banded broadbill (en); bico-largo-de-colar (pt); eurylaime de Horsfield (fr); eurilaimo bandeado (es); purpurkopf-breitrachen (de)


Taxonomy:
Order Passeriformes
Family Eurylaimidae

Range:
This species is found from southern Myanmar and Thailand to the Indonesian islands of Sumatra, Borneo, Java and nearby smaller islands.

Size:
These birds are 21,5-23 cm long and weigh 73-87 g.

Habitat:
The banded broadbill is mostly found in moist tropical forests, including logged forests, but also uses swamp forests, plantations, rural gardens and urban areas. They are present from sea level up to an altitude of 1.500 m.

Diet:
They feed mainly on insects, namely grasshoppers and crickets, beetles, bugs and caterpillars.

Breeding:
Banded broadbills breed in March-December, varying among different parts of their range. The nest is a very large and compact pear-shaped structure, made of twigs, roots, leaves, grass and moss, and lined with leaves. The nest is often decorated with various materials and fixed to the main branch of a tree, often near the bank of a river or stream. The female lays 2-3 white or creamy-white eggs with purple and reddish-brown speckles and spots. There is no information regarding the length of the incubation and fledging periods.

Conservation:
IUCN status - LC (Least Concern)
This species has a very large breeding range and is is reported to be relatively common in Indonesia, except in Java where it is rare, while in Indochina the species is reported to be uncommon in the southern lowlands and extremely rare further north. There is no available information on population trends.

Monday, 15 September 2014

Rufous-banded honeyeater

Conopophila albogularis

Photo by Darryl Jones (Flickr)

Common name:
rufous-banded honeyeater (en); melífago- (pt); méliphage à gorge blanche (fr); mielero pechirrufo (es); rostband-honigfresser (de)

Taxonomy:
Order Passeriformes
Family Meliphagidae

Range:
This species is found in northern Australia, in coastal areas of northern Queensland and the Northern Territory, and also along the southern coast of New Guinea and in some parts of northern Papua-New Guinea.

Size:
These birds are 12-14,5 cm long and weigh 9-14,5 g.

Habitat:
The rufous-banded honeyeater is found in riparian paperback Melaleuca sp. woodlands, Eucalyptus forests, mangroves, moist scrublands and savannas, and in urban parks and gardens. They are present from sea level up to an altitude of 600 m.

Diet:
They are mainly insectivorous, taking various insects and spiders, but also eat nectar from Eucalyptus and paperbark flowers and eat the arils that attach wattle seeds to the pod.

Breeding:
Rufous-banded honeyeaters can breed all year round, but with peaks in September-November and January-March. The nest is a purse-shaped structure suspended from the outer twigs of a wattle or paperbark, often over water. The female lays 2-3 eggs, which are incubated for about 14 days. The chicks are fed by both parents and fledge about 14 days after hatching.

Conservation:
IUCN status - LC (Least Concern)
This species has a large breeding range and is described as common. The population is suspected to be stable in the absence of evidence for any declines or substantial threats.

Sunday, 14 September 2014

Grey-necked wood-rail

Aramides cajaneus

Photo by Santiago Lozano (Internet Bird Collection)

Common name:
grey-necked wood-rail (en); saracura-três-potes (pt); râle de Cayenne (fr); cotara chiricote (es); Cayenneralle (de)

Taxonomy:
Order Gruiformes
Family Rallidae

Range:
This species is found from north-eastern Mexico, south across Central America and into South America where it is found east of the Andes as far south as northern Argentina and Uruguay.

Size:
These birds are 33-40 cm long and weigh 350-470 g.

Habitat:
The grey-necked wood-rail is mostly found in swamp forests and marshes, also using moist tropical forests, mangroves and forests rivers. This species occurs from sea level up to an altitude of 2.000 m.

Diet:
They are omnivorous, feeding on crabs, snails and other molluscs, insects such as flies, cockroaches and locusts, frogs, water snakes and the eggs and juveniles of turtles, but also on seeds and grains, fleshy berries and palm fruits.

Breeding:
Grey-necked wood-rails breed in January-September, varying among different parts of their range. The nest is a bulky mass of dead leaves and twigs, placed either on the ground among reeds or up to 3 m above the ground in a a thicket or vine tangle. The female lays 2-7 dull white to beige eggs with rufous and pale lilac blotches and spots. The eggs are incubated by both parents for about 20 days. The chicks leave the nest within a few days of hatching, but the parents will bring them food and protect them for about 8 weeks.

Conservation:
IUCN status - LC (Least Concern)
This species has an extremely large breeding range and the global population is currently estiated at 5-50 million individuals. The overall population trend is stable, although some populations have unknown trends and may be adversely affected by habitat destruction.